Overview: In 2019 Turkey was the number 19 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 29 in total exports, the number 26 in total imports, the number 77 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 40 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports: The top exports of Turkey are Cars ($12.7B), Refined Petroleum ($6.63B), Delivery Trucks ($4.99B), Jewellery ($4.98B), and Vehicle Parts ($4.93B), exporting mostly to Germany ($16.8B), United Kingdom ($12.1B), Iraq ($10.2B), Italy ($10.1B), and United States ($9.45B).

In 2019, Turkey was the world's biggest exporter of Raw Iron Bars ($2.77B), Hand-Woven Rugs ($2.14B), Wheat Flours ($1.05B), Hot-Rolled Iron Bars ($1.03B), and Marble, Travertine and Alabaster ($870M)

Imports: The top imports of Turkey are Gold ($11.5B), Refined Petroleum ($9.92B), Crude Petroleum ($6.55B), Vehicle Parts ($5.72B), and Scrap Iron ($5.19B), importing mostly from Germany ($21.2B), China ($18.2B), Russia ($16.4B), United States ($10.4B), and Italy ($9.4B).

In 2019, Turkey was the world's biggest importer of Scrap Iron ($5.19B), Non-Retail Synthetic Filament Yarn ($1.62B), Sunflower Seeds ($515M), Bran ($269M), and Jute Yarn ($208M)

Location: Turkey borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, and Syria by land and Cyprus, Egypt, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine by sea.

Latest Trends (November, 2019)

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Overview: In November 2019 Turkey exported $15.4B and imported $17.6B, resulting in a negative trade balance of $2.22B. Between November 2018 and November 2019 the exports of Turkey have increased by $873M (6.01%) from $14.5B to $15.4B, while imports increased by $1.88B (12%) from $15.7B to $17.6B.

Trade: In November 2019, the top exports of Turkey were Vehicles; other than railway or tramway... ($2.33B), Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical... ($1.44B), Electrical machinery and equipment and parts... ($853M), Apparel and clothing accessories; knitted or... ($832M), and Natural, cultured pearls; precious, semi-precious stones;... ($756M). In November 2019 the top imports of Turkey were Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products... ($3.36B), Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical... ($1.81B), Natural, cultured pearls; precious, semi-precious stones;... ($1.65B), Electrical machinery and equipment and parts... ($1.46B), and Iron and steel ($1.07B).

Origins: In November 2019 the exports of Turkey were mainly from Ýstanbul ($7.44B), Kocaeli ($1.09B), Ýzmir ($933M), Bursa ($875M), and Gaziantep ($724M), while imports destinations were mainly Ýstanbul ($9.96B), Gizli Veri ($1.93B), Kocaeli ($1.12B), Ankara ($921M), and Ýzmir ($721M).

Destinations: In November 2019, Turkey exported mostly to Germany ($1.31B), United Kingdom ($1.07B), United States ($1.07B), Italy ($778M), and Spain ($684M), and imported mostly from China ($2.43B), Russia ($1.85B), Germany ($1.65B), World ($1.47B), and United States ($882M).

Growth: In November 2019, the increase in Turkey's year-by-year exports was explained primarily by an increase in exports to Ukraine ($165M or 116%), United Arab Emirates ($120M or 51.5%), and Iraq ($100M or 11.7%), and product exports increase in Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products... ($313M or 88.9%), Natural, cultured pearls; precious, semi-precious stones;... ($251M or 49.7%), and Carpets and other textile floor coverings ($176M or 253%). In November 2019, the increase in Turkey's year-by-year imports was explained primarily by an increase in imports from Switzerland ($477M or 251%), China ($381M or 27.4%), and World ($342M or 39.3%), and product imports increase in Natural, cultured pearls; precious, semi-precious stones;... ($1.08B or 188%), Electrical machinery and equipment and parts... ($246M or 20.2%), and Cereals ($184M or 108%).

Historical Data

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Yearly Exports

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Value
Depth

Top Export (2019): Cars, $12.7B

Top Destination (2019): Germany, $16.8B

In 2019, Turkey exported a total of $187B, making it the number 29 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Turkey have changed by $24.5B from $163B in 2014 to $187B in 2019.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($12.7B), Refined Petroleum ($6.63B), Delivery Trucks ($4.99B), Jewellery ($4.98B), and Vehicle Parts ($4.93B). The most common destination for the exports of Turkey are Germany ($16.8B), United Kingdom ($12.1B), Iraq ($10.2B), Italy ($10.1B), and United States ($9.45B).

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Yearly Imports

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Value
Depth

Top Import (2019): Gold, $11.5B

Top Origin (2019): Germany, $21.2B

In 2019 Turkey imported $193B, making it the number 26 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Turkey changed by -$25.6B from $218B in 2014 to $193B in 2019.

The most recent imports of Turkey are led by Gold ($11.5B), Refined Petroleum ($9.92B), Crude Petroleum ($6.55B), Vehicle Parts ($5.72B), and Scrap Iron ($5.19B). The most common import partners for Turkey are Germany ($21.2B), China ($18.2B), Russia ($16.4B), United States ($10.4B), and Italy ($9.4B).

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Flow

Fastest Growing Export Markets (2018 - 2019)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2018 - 2019)

Turkey Exports Services (2018): $57.6B

Turkey Imports Services (2018): $27B

In 2018, Turkey exported $57.6B worth of services. The top services exported by Turkey in 2018 were Transportation ($24.7B), Personal travel ($22.3B), Business travel ($2.89B), Other business services ($2.75B), and Computer and information services ($1.44B).

The top services imported by Turkey in 2018 were Transportation ($9.06B), Other business services ($5B), Personal travel ($2.83B), Computer and information services ($2.17B), and Insurance services ($1.97B).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Turkey are Bovine cuts boneless, fresh or chilled (225%) and Bovine cuts boneless, frozen (225%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

*The tariffs applied to imports for Turkey are:
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
139: Non-MFN duty rate for countries excluded from Most-Favoured- Nation (MFN) treatement
153: Preferential tafiff for Malaysia
160: Preferential tariff for Albania
172: Preferential tariff for Bosnia and Herzegovina
182: Preferential tariff for Chile
206: Preferential tariff for Egypt
217: Preferential tariff for European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries
219: Preferential tariff for European Union countries (AA) Association Agreement
222: Preferential tariff for Faroe Islands
224: Preferential tariff for for occupied Palestinian territory
226: Preferential tariff for Georgia
242: Preferential tariff for Iran
244: Preferential tariff for Israel
247: Preferential tariff for Jordan
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
263: Preferential tariff for Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
267: Preferential tariff for Mauritius
272: Preferential tariff for Montenegro
273: Preferential tariff for Morocco
299: Preferential tariff for Singapore
318: Preferential tariff for the republic of Moldova
321: Preferential tariff for Tunisia
345: Preferential Trade Agreement among D-8 Member States: D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation
383: Turkey Generalized System of Preference
384: Turkey GSP for Least Developed Countries

Economic Complexity

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Turkey has a high level of specialization in Borates (41.8), Hand-Woven Rugs (39.9), Marble, Travertine and Alabaster (39.1), Wheat Flours (20.7), and Stranded Copper Wire (19.4). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Turkey observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Turkey according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Machine-tools for shaping metals, nes (2.03), Machine-tools for non-mechanical removal of material (1.81), Screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, washers, etc, iron, steel (1.81), Machine-tools for forging, die-stamping, bending metal (1.65), and Gaskets and similar joints of metal sheet (1.55). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Turkey according to the relatedness index, are Knit Women's Coats (0.44), Melons (0.44), Non-Knit Women's Coats (0.44), Molasses (0.43), and Footwear Parts (0.43). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Turkey is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products it is currently specialized in.

Relatedness Space

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This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Turkey. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Turkey exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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Depth

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk and the strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is a predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

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Scale

During the last 20 years Turkey's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively más complex, moving from the ⁩⁨53rd to the 40th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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